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Anesth Pain Med > Volume 10(3); 2015 > Article
Anesthetic Pharmacology
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 2015;10(3):180-186.
DOI:    Published online July 31, 2015.
The effects of ketamine-propofol (ketofol) ratio in the mixing proportions of ketofol on hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation
Jong Cheol Rim, Dong Young Kim, Hyuk Kim, Ji Hye Park, Sang Yoong Park, Seung Cheol Lee, Chan Jong Chung, Jong Hwan Lee
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
Received: 18 March 2015   • Revised: 30 April 2015   • Accepted: 8 June 2015
Hemodynamic stability can be achieved using the combination of ketamine and propofol (ketofol). This study was designed to compare the hemodynamic effects of ketofol with different ketamine-propofol ratios versus propofol after induction of general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.
A total of 120 American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II patients 20-60 years of age were randomly allocated into one of four groups. The K0 group received only 2 mg/kg propofol. The K0.15 group received 0.15 mg/kg ketamine and 1.85 mg/kg propofol. The K0.3 group received 0.3 mg/kg ketamine and 1.7 mg/kg propofol. The K0.6 group received 0.6 mg/kg ketamine and 1.4 mg/kg propofol. Endotracheal intubation was performed after muscle relaxation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR) and the bispectral index value were recorded.
No significant differences were observed in SBP, DBP, MBP, or HR among the groups after endotracheal intubation. However, the number of patients with a decrease of MBP > 20% from baseline after induction was significantly lower in the K0.6 group compared to that in the K0 group (P < 0.05).
The results suggest that ketofol with 0.6 mg/kg ketamine and 1.4 mg/kg propofol can be used as an alternative to 2 mg/kg propofol.
Key Words: Endotracheal intubation, Ketamine, Propofol

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