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Anesthetic Pharmacology
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 2007;2(3):126-131.
Published online July 31, 2007.
The Effect of Anesthetics and Opioids for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in General Anesthesia
Kyoung Hee Lyu, Chi Hyo Kim, Jong In Han
Department of Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
A number of anesthetic factors may influence the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) throughout various mechanisms. This study analyzed the effect of different anesthetics and opioids with regards to PONV. METHODS: Ninety ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients, who were scheduled for minor orthopedic or plastic surgery, were randomly assigned for three groups to receive either propofol-fentanyl (Group PF), propofol-femifentanil (Group PR) or sevoflurane-fentanyl (Group SF). Anesthesia was induced with propofol or pentothal sodium, rocuronium and fentanyl (2microg/kg) or remifentanil (1microg/kg). Anesthesia was maintained with BIS (bispectral index) value in the range of 40-60 and blood pressure and heart rate within 20% of baseline. The incidence and severity score of PONV, the administration of metoclopramide, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain were assessed at 2, 12, 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: The incidence of PONV in SF group was significantly higher than in PF and PR group during 0-2 hours period (P < 0.05). The incidence of PONV in SF and PF group was significantly higher than in PR group during 2-12 h period (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in gender, the administration of antiemetics and postoperative VAS. CONCLUSIONS: With propofol based anesthesia, short-cting remifentanil resulted in a lower incidence of PONV during 2-12 h period than fentanyl. Propofol-fentanyl anesthesia decreases the incidence of PONV compared with sevoflurane-entanyl during 0-2 hours postoperatively.
Key Words: fentanyl, postoperative nausea and vomiting, propofol, remifentanil, sevoflurane

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